What Is Blockchain Layers 0, 1, 2, And 3: Explained | ZebPay

Blockchain is the system of recording transactions made in the trading of bitcoin. These are linked with a peer-to-peer network. Under blockchain, the information is fully secured, and there is no possibility of hacking and cheating. There is a list of blocks under the blockchain. Each block is authorised by a particular person, and records are maintained block-wise. Here, transactions are recorded by distributed ledger technology, and transactions are maintained by Hash, a cryptographic digital signature. Within a decentralised ecosystem, Blockchain is said to be a layer in itself.

Blockchain layers are categorised into:

  • Layer 0 blockchain
  • Layer 1 blockchain
  • Layer 2 blockchain
  • Layer 3 blockchain

Blockchain is a mixture of cryptography and game theory. Blockchain works on mathematics-based calculations. Primarily, blockchain consists of five layers: hardware infrastructure layer, data layer, network layer, consensus layer, and application layer. So, let’s look at each layer below:

Layer 0:

Blockchain in itself is called layer zero. The components required to make blockchain real are the internet, hardware, and many other connections. Layer 0 is the initial stage of blockchain that allows various networks to function, such as Bitcoin, Ethereum, and many more. Layer 0 also provides blockchain with a facility of cross-chain interoperability communication from top to different layers. Layer 0 provides the underlying infrastructure for blockchain.

Layer 1:

Layer 1 blockchain is an advancement in layer 0. Under this layer, the blockchain network is maintained functionally. However, scaling is a limitation in the layer one blockchain. Any changes and issues arising in the new protocol in layer 0 will also affect layer 1. It is also called an implementation layer. Examples of layer one blockchain are Bitcoin, Ethereum, Cardano, Ripple, etc.

Layer 2:

Layer 0 has many interactions that have been removed by layer 2. For specific blockchains layer, 2 is the scaling solution. It works with third-party integration and removes the limitations of layer 1. It is by far the most popular approach for solving scaling issues attached to POW networks. At present, various industries have begun implementing layer two technologies.

Layer 3:

Layer 3 blockchain is also referred to as the “application layer”. The main task of this layer is to host the DAapps and many other protocols that enable other apps. Here, the blockchain protocol is split into two significant sub-layers, that being, application and execution. It is the most diminutive and most potent solution made to separate blockchains with cross-chain capabilities for achieving the target of real interoperability.

Read About: Different Types Of Blockchain—Advantages & Disadvantages

What is blockchain scalability?

Blockchain scalability is the ability of the network to support the increased load of transactions and nodes in the particular network. In the blockchain, transactions per second are recorded. Day by day, we are witnessing new advancements in blockchain technology; With these advancements, transactions are also increasing per second. That’s why it is called blockchain scalability.

In a blockchain network, security is the main feature, besides the distribution of power. Blockchain protocols are made to secure data from network attacks. Scalability in blockchain supports future growth and high transactional throughput. It made many technological advancements to the blockchain so that it competes with centralised platforms, legacy, and so on. Scalability is a solution to many of the problems that blockchain faces.

Further, “Scalability trilemma” is another term for handling three properties such as, security, scalability, and decentralisation. As we know, each blockchain technology only works on two properties at a moment, at the most, it also works on three. It is the fastest and most secure scalable network.

What is Blockchain security?

In the blockchain system, computers are linked in a peer-to-peer network. As the nodal distribution is done on the open network, there is a 51% risk of attack by hackers. Plus, there is an equal probability of data being manipulated. Blockchain security can be maintained only if the blockchain is guarded against outside risk.


Basically, there are three layers in the blockchain. They are Layer 0, Layer 1 and Layer 2. Each layer has its own protocols. Each one is different from the other yet is essential for blockchain.

Further, scalability is the only reason that crypto blockchain is possible in the blockchain business. The new innovation called Scalability trilemma solves some of the limitations surrounding scalability.

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