Table of Contents
In recent years, the field of emergency medicine care has witnessed a significant transformation in our conventional healthcare models due to the widespread adoption and application of digital technologies, including artificial intelligence , machine learning , big data , and the metaverse. With the increasing adoption of digital technologies and the growth of healthcare services, there has been a significant increase in the types, velocity, and volume of personal health data, leading to a greater demand for data exchange within the healthcare ecosystem. While big healthcare data holds significant potential, striking a balance between permissible data applications and maintaining security and patients’ rights to privacy presents a formidable challenge .
Data security and data ownership have become focal points in the healthcare system . The issue of sensitive healthcare data breaches has become a recurring concern, as evidenced by incidents like the largest healthcare data breaches of 2018, which resulted in the exposure of 13 million total healthcare records and led to significant repercussions . At the same time, sensitive information such as medical history, social security numbers, and financial details faces potential risks. Additionally, with the emergence of personalized healthcare and wearable devices, the ownership of individual healthcare data and the implementation of access control mechanisms have gained paramount significance [5,7]. During this period, it becomes crucial to implement trustworthy technologies while maintaining trust and safety among ecosystem participants. As a result, healthcare institutions are in urgent need of reviewing the current clinical applications and proposing novel and improved solutions to maintain trust and enhance data security within the emergency healthcare ecosystem.
So far, there have been numerous reviews focusing on the applications of blockchain in healthcare. However, across different specialized medical disciplines, unique healthcare sectors and practice settings each possess their own distinct characteristics. Alongside widely utilized electronic medical record applications, the domain of emergency medical care presents specific requirements, encompassing pre-hospital emergency services, inter-hospital transfers, as well as prehospital care for trauma and critical illnesses. These particular aspects have not received a thorough examination in previous literature reviews and have often been overlooked in the majority of evaluations concerning the implementation of blockchain technology in the healthcare sector. Therefore, considering the increasing adoption of blockchain technology, a better understanding of its application and current status in emergency care systems is urgently needed. The study is structured as follows: Section 2 provides an introduction to the background knowledge of blockchain; Section 3 elaborates on the research methods used; Section 4 presents the obtained results; Section 5 discusses the findings; Section 6 addresses future challenges and limitations; and finally, Section 7 concludes the study.