AI Law Enforcement: Transparency And Accountability

AI assurance efforts, as part of a larger accountability ecosystem, should allow government agencies and other stakeholders, as appropriate, to assess whether the system under review

  1. has substantiated claims made about its attributes and/or
  2. meets baseline criteria for “trustworthy AI.”

The RFC asked about the evaluations entities should conduct prior to and after deploying AI systems; the necessary conditions for AI system evaluations and certifications to validate claims and provide other assurance; different policies and approaches suitable for different use cases; helpful regulatory analogs in the development of an AI accountability ecosystem; regulatory requirements such as audits or licensing; and the appropriate role for the federal government in connection with AI assurance and other accountability mechanisms.

Over 1,440 unique comments from diverse stakeholders were submitted in response to the RFC and have been posted to An NTIA employee read every comment. Approximately 1,250 of the comments were submitted by individuals in their own capacity. Approximately 175 were submitted by organizations or individuals in their institutional capacity. Of this latter group, industry (including trade associations) accounted for approximately 48%, nonprofit advocacy for approximately 37%, and academic and other research organizations for approximately 15%. There were a few comments from elected and other governmental officials.

Since the release of the RFC, the Biden-Harris Administration has worked to advance trustworthy AI in several ways. In May 2023, the Administration secured commitments from leading AI developers to participate in a public evaluation of AI systems at DEF CON 31.5 The Administration also secured voluntary commitments from leading developers of “frontier” advanced AI systems (“White House Voluntary Commitments”) to advance trust and safety, including through evaluation and transparency measures that relate to queries in the RFC.6 In addition, the Administration secured voluntary commitments from healthcare companies related to AI.7 Most recently, President Biden issued an Executive Order on Safe, Secure, and Trustworthy Development and Use of Artificial Intelligence (“AI EO”), which advances and coordinates the Administration’s efforts to ensure the safe and secure use of AI; promote responsible innovation, competition, and collaboration to create and maintain the United States’ leadership in AI; support American workers; advance equity and civil rights; protect Americans who increasingly use, interact with, or purchase AI and AI-enabled products; protect Americans’ privacy and civil liberties; manage the risks from the federal government’s use of AI; and lead global societal, economic, and technical progress.8 Administration efforts to advance trustworthy AI prior to the release of the RFC in April 2023 include most notably the NIST AI Risk Management Framework (NIST AI RMF)9 and the White House Blueprint for an AI Bill of Rights (Blueprint for AIBoR).10

Federal regulatory and law enforcement agencies have also advanced AI accountability efforts. A joint statement from the Federal Trade Commission, the Department of Justice’s Civil Rights Division, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, and the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau outlined the risks of unlawfully discriminatory outcomes produced by AI and other automated systems and asserted the respective agencies’ commitment to enforcing existing law.11 Other federal agencies are examining AI in connection with their missions.12 A number of different Congressional committees have held hearings, and members of Congress have introduced bills related to AI.13 State legislatures across the country have passed bills that affect AI,14 and localities are legislating as well.15

The United States has collaborated with international partners to consider AI accountability policy. The U.S. – EU Trade and Technology Council (TTC) issued a joint AI Roadmap and launched three expert groups in May 2023, of which one is focused on “monitoring and measuring AI risks.”16 These groups have issued a list of 65 key terms, wherever possible unifying disparate definitions.17 Participants in the 2023 Hiroshima G7 Summit have worked to advance shared international guiding principles and a code of conduct for trustworthy AI development.18 The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development is working on accountability in AI.19 In Europe, the EU AI Act – which includes provisions addressing pre-release conformity certifications for high-risk systems, as well as transparency and audit provisions and special provisions for foundation models20 or general purpose AI – has continued on the path to becoming law.21 The EU Digital Services Act requires audits of the largest online platforms and search engines,22 and a recent EU Commission delegated act on audits indicates that it is important in this context to analyze algorithmic systems and technologies such as generative models.23

Multiple policy interventions may be necessary to achieve accountability. Take, for example, a policy promoting the disclosure to appropriate parties of training data details, performance limitations, and model characteristics for high-risk AI systems. Disclosure alone does not make an AI actor accountable. However, such information flows will likely be important for internal accountability within the AI actor’s domain and for external accountability as regulators, litigators, courts, and the public act on such information. Disclosure, then, is an accountability input whose effectiveness depends on other policies or conditions, such as the governing liability framework, relevant regulation, and market forces (in particular, customers’ and consumers’ ability to use the information disclosed to make purchase and use decisions). This report touches on how accountability inputs feed into the larger accountability apparatus and considers how these connections might be developed in further work.

Our final limitations on scope concern matters that are the focus of other federal government inquiries. Although NTIA received many comments related to intellectual property, particularly on the role of copyright in the development and deployment of AI, this Report is largely silent on intellectual property issues. Mitigating risks to intellectual property (e.g. infringement, unauthorized data transfers, unauthorized disclosures) are certainly recognized components of AI accountability.24 These issues are of ongoing consideration at the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO)25 and at the U.S. Copyright Office.26 We look forward to working with these agencies and others on these issues as warranted to help ensure that AI accountability and related transparency, safety, and other considerations relevant to the broader digital economy and Internet ecosystem are represented.27

Similarly, the role of privacy and the use of personal data in model training are topics of great interest and significance to AI accountability. More than 90% of all organizational commenters noted the importance of data protection and privacy to trustworthy and accountable AI.28 AI can exacerbate risks to Americans’ privacy, as recognized by the Blueprint for an AI Bill of Rights and the AI EO.29 Privacy protection is not only a focus of AI accountability, but importantly privacy also needs to be considered in the development and use of accountability tools. Documentation, disclosures, audits, and other forms of evaluation can result in the collection and exposure of personal information, thereby jeopardizing privacy if not properly designed and executed. Stronger and clearer rules for the protection of personal data are necessary through the passage of comprehensive federal privacy legislation and other actions by federal agencies and the Administration. The President has called on Congress to enact comprehensive federal privacy protections.30

Finally, open-source AI models, AI models with widely available model weights, and components of AI systems generally are of tremendous interest and raise distinct accountability issues. The AI EO tasked the Secretary of Commerce with soliciting input and issuing a report on “the potential benefits, risks, and implications, of dual-use foundation models for which the weights are widely available, as well as policy and regulatory recommendations pertaining to such models,”31 and NTIA has published a Request for Comment for the purpose of informing that report.32

Graphic showing the AI Accountability Chain model